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    今天是2019年2月25日 星期一,歡迎光臨本站 

    產品知識

    微灌系統中過濾設備的應用

    文字:[大][中][小] 手機頁面二維碼 2017/9/18     瀏覽次數:    

      通常微灌系統是由水泵、儀表、控制閥、過濾器組成的首部樞紐和擔負著輸配水任務的各干管、支管、毛管組成的管網系統以及直接向作物根部供水的各種形式的灌水器三部分組成。其中灌水器是完成灌水任務中最末級的關鍵設備,被稱為微灌系統中的心臟,而為了能使灌水器正常工作,過濾設備的選擇和工作性能是至關重要的。如果過濾設備的選擇失誤,導致灌水器堵塞,會引起配水不均和系統性能下降,甚至造成整個微灌系統癱瘓,這樣就不得不耗費大量人力和財力來排除堵塞或重建系統。



      過濾設備有以下幾種類型:


      (1)攔污柵(篩網)主要用于河流、庫塘等含有較大體積雜物的灌溉水源中,攔截枯枝殘葉、雜草和其他較大的漂浮物等,防止雜物進入沉淀池或蓄水池中。攔污柵構造簡單,可以根據水源實際情況自行設計和制作。初級攔污篩(網)是安裝在水源中水泵進口處的一種網式攔污柵,即初級凈化處理設施,主要用于含有大量水草、雜物和藻類等水源處攔泥。


      (2)沉淀池沉淀池是灌溉用水水質凈化初級處理設施之一,盡管是一種簡單而又古老的水處理方法,但卻是解決多種水源水質凈化問題的有效而又經濟的一種處理方式,沉淀池的作用表現在兩個方面:①清除水中存在的固體物質。當水中含泥沙太多時,使用的篩網過濾器和介質過濾器將因頻繁沖洗而失去作用,此種情況下沉淀池可起初級過濾作用。②去除鐵物質。溶解在地下水中的二氧化碳,在沉淀池中因壓力降低,水溫升高而逸出,水的pH值增大,引起鐵物質的氧化和沉淀。


      (3)離心式過濾器(又稱砂分離器)主要用于清除井水泥沙。離心式過濾器的工作原理是由高速旋轉水流產生的離心力,將砂粒和其他較重的雜質從水體中分離出來,它內部沒有濾網,也沒有可拆卸的部件,保養維護很方便。離心式過濾器底部的積沙室必須頻繁沖洗,以防沉積的泥沙再次被帶入系統。對有機物或比重小于水的雜質,離心式過濾器的分離效果很差,只有在一定的流量范圍內,離心式過濾器才能發揮出應有的凈化水質的效果。


      (4)沙石過濾器主要用于水庫、塘壩、渠道、河流及其他敞開水面水源中有機物的前級過濾。它是利用沙石作為過濾介質的,污水通過進水口進入濾罐,再經過沙石之間的孔隙截流和俘獲而達到過濾目的。沙石過濾器過濾可靠、清潔度高,在所有過濾器中,用砂石過濾器處理水中有機雜質和無機雜質最為有效,并可不間斷供水。只要水中有機物含量超過10mg/L時,無論無機物含量有多少,均應選用砂石過濾器。


      (5)網式過濾器(又稱篩網過濾器)這是一種簡單而有效的過濾設備,造價也較便宜,在國內外灌溉系統中使用最為廣泛。它的過濾介質是尼龍篩網或不銹鋼篩網。主要用于過濾灌溉水中的粉粒、沙和水垢等污物,也可用于過濾含有少量有機污物的灌溉水,但當有機物含量稍高時過濾效果很差,尤其是當壓力較大時,大量的有機污物會擠過篩網而進入管道,造成系統與灌水器的堵塞。網式過濾器種類繁多。按安裝方式可分為立式和臥式;按制造材料可分為塑料和金屬;按清洗方式可分為人工清洗和自動清洗;按封閉與否可分為封閉式和敞開式。網式過濾器由篩網、殼體、頂蓋等主要部分組成。過濾器各部分要用耐壓腐蝕的金屬或塑料制造。系統主過濾器的篩網一般用不銹鋼絲制成,用于支管和毛管上的過濾器,其篩網也可用尼龍或銅絲制成。


      (6)疊片式過濾器該過濾器是由大量的很薄的圓形疊片重疊起來,并鎖緊形成一個圓柱形濾芯,每個圓形疊片有兩個面,一面分布著許多S形濾槽,另一面為大量的同心環形濾槽。如果疊片式過濾器的過濾能力不同,則其疊片上的S形和環形濾槽的尺寸也不同,與網式過濾器一樣,疊片式過濾器的過濾能力也以目數表示,一般這種過濾器的過濾能力在40~400目之間。

    在選擇過濾設備之前,應首先確定以下因素:


      ①弄清楚灌溉水中含有哪些雜質。


      ②確定所選灌水器的流道直徑,將用此直徑選定過濾器的過濾能力。


      ③確定灌溉系統的峰值流量,用此流量選擇過濾器的過濾容量。


      所選過濾器的目數即過濾器的過濾能力取決于灌水器的流道直徑,對于微噴系統的過濾器,必須能將大于1/7噴嘴直徑的雜質全部濾掉;對采用長流道滴頭的滴灌系統,過濾器的過濾能力務必達到能將大于1/10滴孔直徑的雜質的全部濾出。

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